Description. A moderately large deer with large ears; antlers
typically dichotomously branched and restricted almost entirely to males;
metatarsal gland 3 to 5 inches long, narrow, and situated above midpoint
of shank; upperparts in winter cinnamon buff suffused with blackish, more
reddish in summer; brow patch whitish; ear grayish on outside, whitish
on inside; tail usually with black tip and white basal portion; underparts
white. Dental formula: 1 0/3, C 0/1 Pm 3/3, M 3/3 X 2 = 32. External measurements:
(males) total length, 1,755 mm.; tail. 1 mm.; hind foot, 555 mm.; metatarsal
gland, 129 mm.; (females) 1,453-175-475 mm. Weight, 1 to 225 pounds (57
to 102 kg.).
Habits. Mule deer occupy to some extent almost all types of habitat
with-in their range, but, in general they seem to prefer the more arid,
open situations in which sagebrush, juniper, pinon pine, yellow pine. bitter
brush. mountain mahogany, and such plants predominate. In western Texas,
rocky hillsides covered with lechuguilla, sotol, juniper, and pinon pine
provide the essentials.
The mule deer is noted for its peculiar, high-bouncing gait. Estimates
of their speed vary, but Donald McLean was able to force one to a speed
of 38 miles (58 km.) an hour on a dry lake flat in California. After the
first short burst of speed, the animal dropped to about 23 miles (35 km.)
an hour and was badly winded after a chase of less than a mile. When allowed
to choose their own gait, they are able to travel at about 20 miles (30
km.) an hour for a considerable period of time. In rough, broken country
they are at their best. There, the long, high bounds send them over the
rocks and brush much faster than the average running animal can go through
or around the obstructions. The longest bounds are generally made when
the animals are going downhill or leaping across gullies. McLean measured
two flat jumps that were 19 1/2 and 23 1/4 feet (5.9 and 7.1 m.), respectively.
A downhill bound on a 7 percent slope measured 28 feet 7 inches (8.7 m.).
They can easily clear a fence 7 feet (2 m.) high.
Although equipped with acute senses of sight and hearing, these deer
rely largely upon the sense of smell in detecting danger. Stationary objects
are easily overlooked by them, but they readily detect any that are in
Mule deer of both sexes normally do most of their feeding in early morning
before sunrise or in late afternoon and evening after sundown. They spend
the middle of the day bedded down in cool, secluded places. In summer the
bucks retire as soon as the sun shines where they are feeding, and go to
the dense shade of some grove to bed down for the day. In general, mature
bucks prefer rocky ridges for bedding grounds because there they seem to
feel more secure from the approach of danger. Does and fawns are more likely
to bed down in the open. In winter, however, they often seek out sunny
places well screened on at least three sides by vegetation. At night, they
usually bed down in the open away from trees and bushes.
The food of the mule deer is quite varied.. Feeding time varies with
the weather, the phase of the moon, the time of the year and type of country.
During cold, snowy, winter months, when food is difficult to obtain and
a considerable amount is required to maintain body heat and energy, deer
feed at all times of day and night. During the rutting season, feeding
is often erratic, especially with bucks. During the hunting season, when
many hunters are on the range, bucks do the major part of their feeding
at night. Deer are more prone to feed on dark nights and are relatively
quiet and bedded down when the moonlight is intense. In spring and summer,
mule deer tend to feed to a greater extent upon green leaves, green herbs,
weeds and grasses than they do upon browse species; the reverse is true
in fall and winter.
The rut begins in the fall, usually in November or December, but
varies with locality and climatic conditions, and continues until the latter
part of January or even into February. During this period, the bucks have
terrific battles in which the antlers are used almost exclusively. Bucks
that are evenly matched in size and strength may fight until almost exhausted
before one or the other is the victor. The animals are polygamous. The
stronger, more virile bucks attract females to them and attempt to defend
them against the attentions of the younger bucks. Small, persistent bucks
can lead a large buck a miserable life, leaving him little time to take
care of family duties or even to eat, because of his continued attempts
to drive them away. In this period the necks of bucks become swollen, a
development that is closely associated with reproduction.
The gestation period is approximately 210 days; and the fawning period
extends over several weeks in June, July and August. The female sequesters
herself and drops her fawn in a protected locality where it remains for
a period of a week or 10 days before it is strong enough to follow her.
At birth fawns are spotted and weigh approximately 6 pounds (2.7 kg.).
They are nursed at regular intervals by the female, 10 minutes of nursing
usually sufficing for a full meal. The young ones are weaned at about the
age of 60 or 75 days, at which time they begin to lose their spots. The
weaning time is a critical one because if green forage is not available,
the fawns seldom make their transfer from milk to a diet of vegetation.
If the fawn is not weaned, both mother and fawn are likely to experience
difficulty in surviving a severe winter. Sexual maturity is attained at
the age of about 18 months in does, but ordinarily young bucks are not
allowed to participate actively in the rut until they are 3 or 4 years
Antlers are shed after the breeding season, from mid-January to about
mid-April. Most mature bucks in good condition have lost theirs by the
end of February; immature bucks generally lose them a little later. New
antler growth begins immediately following the shedding of the old. Growth
is extremely rapid, and massive antlers develop fully in about 150 days.
While the antlers are growing, the bucks remain on the open slopes and
benches where the brush is short or scattered to avoid injuring the soft,
new growth. Mature bucks normally have four main points on each antler,
but beyond the third year there is little or no correlation between the
number of points and the age of the deer. Beyond the prime of life, the
so-called "Pacific buck" type may develop, which consists of only two points,
or a spike, on each side of a large set of antlers.
The age of mule deer can be determined fairly accurately up to about
24 months. At birth the fawn is equipped with upper premolars, the third
and fourth lower premolars, the lower canines, and the entire lower incisor
series. The second lower premolar may erupt shortly after birth or within
the first 60 days. By the age of 3 1/2 months, the first upper molar is
functional. At the age of approximately 1 year, the middle lower incisor
is shed and replaced by a permanent one. Each permanent incisor is wider
than its predecessor. At the age of 15 to 18 months, the molars erupt and
take their place in the series, and at the age of 24 to 25 months, the
premolars are replaced by the permanent dentition.
Mule deer are of considerable economic importance as a big game mammal.
On the other side of the ledger, there is some competition between mule
deer and livestock on the range, particularly in spring and early summer,
Furthermore, such maladies as hoof-and-mouth disease can be transmitted
deer to livestock, and vice versa, so that once the disease is established
in the Wild animals, drastic measures must be taken to curb it. Anthrax
is also said to be propagated and spread by deer, and these animals are
also capable of harboring the causative agents of tularemia or rabbit fever.
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